FISH Handbook FISH Handbook for Biological for Biological Wastewater Treatment
A special case is the identiﬁcation of ﬁlamentous bacteria. These have primarily been identiﬁed based on their morphology and simple staining techniques using light microscopy since their ﬁrst comprehensive description by Eikelboom (Eikelboom, 1975). Several manuals have since been published (e.g. Eikelboom 2000; Jenkins et al., 2004), all of them being based on his original work. However, today it is clear that although some ﬁlamentous bacteria can be fairly reliably identiﬁed in this way, the majority can not. As described in Chapter 5, we strongly recommend to also apply FISH for the identiﬁcation of ﬁlamentous microorganisms, after having accomplished a preliminary morphological identiﬁcation using the manuals.