Opportunities in Fecal Sludge Management for Cities in Developing Countries: Experiences from the Philippines
In the Philippines, groundwater contamination from the indiscriminate discharge of septic tank
effluent as well as limited FSM programs continues to place populations at risk from outbreaks of
waterborne disease, even though the country is on track to meet its Millennium Development Goals. As an example of this risk, the region of Bicol experienced a cholera outbreak in July 2012
that reached epidemic levels. There were over 3,000 confirmed cases and over 30 deaths from drinking water that was contaminated by human waste. The national government of the Philippines considers centralized sewer systems, FSM, and hybrid combinations to be viable solutions to address these issues. Although some cities have implemented FSM to combat critical environmental health issues, wide‐scale replication has not occurred.