Assessment of Faecal Sludge Management Strategic Guidance for future investments in Small Towns 14 August 2015. FINAL REPORT
Following the development of the National Hygiene and Sanitation Master Plan (2011) many settlements have been declared open defecation free (ODF) through construction of thousands of on-site sanitation systems. However, there is not much guidance on best practice for collection, treatment, disposal or re-use of human excreta stored in these on-site systems. This stored excreta is also referred to as faecal sludge (FS). Problem of FS management is especially challenging in dense urban settlements, small and emerging towns where space is a limitation to build proper toilets with pre-treatment facilities such as septic tanks. Without proper containment and management systems, FS constitutes a health hazard. Realizing the need to study the status of and need for FSM in rural and small town on-site sanitation, this study was conducted. This study was based on a reviews, rapid assessments and interviews conducted in 9 small towns located mostly in the Hills and in the Terai.