DRAFT POLICY ON FAECAL SLUDGE & SEPTAGE MANAGEMENT (FSSM) 2017
Faecal Sludge and Septage Management is the process of safe collection, conveyance, treatment and disposal/ reuse of faecal sludge and septage from on-site sanitation systems such as pit latrines, septic tanks, etc., i.e. the management of the mixture of human waste (solid and liquid) that is not conveyed by a centralized sewerage system. A typical FSSM system involves mechanized desludging of a septic tank/pit latrine using a suction emptier machine, which then stores the collected waste in a sealed container and transports it to a treatment facility. In some cases it is a transfer station for temporary storage before being transported to a treatment facility by a different vehicle. At the treatment facility (either a dedicated FSTP or co- treatment in STP), the faecal sludge/septage undergoes pre-treatment, followed by primary and secondary treatment (even tertiary treatment and polishing). Some efficient treatment facilities also incorporate resource recovery (methane, reuse of treated wastewater, manure/soil conditioner, etc.) in the treatment process. The final residual product from the treatment plant is either recycled/reused or disposed safely in the surrounding environment that would comply with all pollution and quality standards.
There can be multiple deviations from this process at different stages of the sanitation value chain depending on site situation, techno-economic feasibility and capacities of the operators & regulators.